Proteins belonging to the acute-phase protein (APP) family include C-reactive protein (CRP), haptoglobin, alpha-1-acid glycoprotein, hemopexin, macroglobulin, thiostatin, and others. Serum levels of APPs change in response to tissue injury, inflammation, and infection. APPs are identified as either positive or negative depending on whether levels increase or decrease. They have proved to be useful biomarkers for a wide range of diseases. CRP is a positive acute phase reactant but the degree by which it increases varies significantly with species. In humans and monkeys CRP increases by 50-fold or more. In rats it increases by only 50%. CRP is therefore an excellent acute phase biomarker in humans and monkeys but a poor one in rats. In contrast, alpha-2-macroglobulin can increase by 1000-fold in rats but does not increase at all in humans and monkeys. Negative acute phase reactants include albumin, transferrin, and murinoglobulin (rats only). We recently generated data that illustrate acute phase protein changes in mouse and rat models of inflammation. Please click on the preceding links to view the data.
We manufacture a range of ELISA kits for detection of APPs in species of relevance to preclinical research and veterinary diagnostics. Please contact us if you would like advice regarding biomarker selection in a particular species. In addition to ELISA kits we also manufacture purified acute phase proteins and antibodies.